Tonkin-resolutie (7 augustus 1964)

Historische achtergrond Tonkin-resolutie

De Tonkin-resolutie werd op 7 augustus 1964 door het Amerikaanse Congres aangenomen. Dit naar aanleiding een (vermeend) incident in de Golf van Tonkin op 2 augustus 1964. Volgens de Amerikanen vielen daar Noord-Vietnamese torpedoschepen de Amerikaanse torpedojager Maddox aan. De Amerikanen reageerden met de Tonkin-resolutie. De Tonkin-bepaling gaf de Amerikaanse president Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) de vrijmacht om alles in te zetten om het gevaar van Noord-Vietnam in te dammen. Hij kreeg toestemming om…

…alle noodzakelijke stappen te ondernemen, inclusief het gebruik van militaire middelen, om leden van de ZOAVO [Zuidoost-Aziatische Verdragsorganisatie, opgericht in 1954, red.] te helpen bij de verdediging van hun vrijheid.

Dit leidde tot massale luchtaanvallen en bombardementen op Noord-Vietnam. Het Tonkin-incident bleek later een door de Verenigde Staten flink opgeblazen gebeurtenis te zijn, als rechtvaardiging van het intensiveren van de oorlog tegen Noord-Vietnam. In 1970 herriep de Amerikaanse Senaat de Tonkin-resolutie.

De Engelse tekst van de Tonkin-resolutie

To promote the maintenance of international peace and security in Southeast Asia.

Whereas naval units of the communist regime in Vietnam, in violation of the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and of international law, have deliberately and repeatedly attacked United States naval vessels lawfully present in international waters, and have thereby created a serious threat to international peace; and

- advertentie -

Whereas these attacks are part of a deliberate and systematic campaign of aggression that the communist regime in North Vietnam has been waging against its neighbors and the nations joined with them in the collective defense of their freedom; and

Whereas the United States is assisting the peoples of Southeast Asia to protect their freedom and has no territorial, military or political ambitions in that area, but desires only that these peoples should be left in peace to work out their own destinies in their own way: Now, therefore, be it.

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.

Sec. 2. The United States regards as vital to its national interest and to world peace the maintenance of international peace and security in Southeast Asia. Consonant with the Constitution of the United States and the Charter of the United Nations and in accordance with its obligations under the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, the United States is, therefore, prepared, as the President determines, to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom.

“Sec. 3. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress.”

Bron: The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 3, p. 722. Online: https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon3/ps12.htm